The article states that 43% of NYC elementary school children are reported to be overweight and 24% reported obesity. This data is an example of:
|Age specific all-cause mortality|
Which is of the following is most likely a hypothesis for this study?
|Obese children are at high risk for type 2 diabetes.|
|Overweight elementary school children who participate in physical activity interventions are at decreased risk of type 2 diabetes compared to those who do not receive these interventions.|
|Obese school age children who participate in structured interventions are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared to those who do not receive these interventions.|
|Obesity is genetic and cannot be avoided.|
Which of the following is the recommended physical activity health policy for school aged children?
|Children must be allowed 30 minutes of active play per day.|
|Children must be allowed 60 minutes of active play per week.|
|Children must be allowed to play an organized sports in the Spring and Summer.|
|Children must be allowed 60 minutes of active play per day|
According to the article, all of the following are components of a healthy weight promotion intervention among elementary school children, except:
|Physical activity education for parents and children|
|Nutrition education for parents and children|
|Vigorous physical activity for children outside of the time allotted to school lessons|
Which of the following is a biometric indicator for cardiovascular health among elementary school children (check all that apply)?
|Smoking and alcohol use|
Which of the following was an exclusion criteria for the study?
|Children who had parental consent|
|Children who did not have diabetes|
|Children who could take part in the dance class|
|Children who had cardiac conditions|
Which of the following was reported as a program outcome in this evaluation?
|Children in the obesity and overweight BMI groups reported reductions in total cholesterol between baseline and the completion of the intervention.|
|Children in the healthy weight BMI group experienced reductions in fat free muscle.|
|Children in the obesity but not in the overweight BMI group maintained improvements to white bread consumption 6 months post-intervention.|
|Children in the overweight but not in the obesity BMI group maintained improvements to white rice consumption at the completion of the 18 week program.|
Describe the population that was the focus of this research. Please select the characteristics for the study participants from the options below.
|14-18 year olds|
|12-14 year olds|
|9-11 year olds|
|5-8 year olds|
Which of the following is a health outcome the researchers set out to study?
|Cardiovascular disease incidence|
Which of the following describes components of the intervention that the researchers set out to evaluate?
|Availability of healthy foods|
|Access to healthcare|
|Participation in after school dance classes|
The study describes a combination of which types of evaluation? (select all that apply)
True or false: A key difference between formative evaluations and summative evaluations is that summative evaluations measure outcomes at a program’s end and formative take place during program planning.
Which of the following is descriptive data that was used to obtain program data for this intervention?
|The percentage of participants who identified as Latino/Hispanic|
|T-tests and p-values|
|Odds ratios and confidence intervals|
|Relative risk and confidence intervals|
Which of the following are inferential statistics that were used to test the effectiveness of the intervention?
|Mean difference pre- and post-intervention, standard deviation, and p-value|
|The percentage of participants who identified as Black/ African American|
|The average household income for the participants|
|The average number of dance classes each participant completed|
According to the researchers, which of the following describes the comparison group?
|Children 9-11 who did not participate in the intervention|
|Parents of the children who received dance classes|
|Both children and parents who participated in the intervention|
|None of the above|
True or false: The questionnaire (questions included in table 3, p.14) has content validity because it measures fruit and vegetable intake, which is associated with healthy eating.
True or false: The intervention tested here is designed from evidence-based lifestyle change programs.
Which of the following describes the data reported in this study?
|Both B and C|
True or false: The results from this program evaluation could be generalized to adapt obesity prevention programs for First Nations/ Native American populations.
True or false: The intervention evaluated in this study had the best results for overweight and obese participants.
True or false: Children who were healthy weight at the start of the intervention reported statistically significant improvements in fat free mass.
Which of the following was a threat to external validity based on the researchers’ choice to focus on mambo, cha-cha, hip hop and swing for the dance classes?
|Cultural and ethnocentric bias|
|The Hawthorne Effect|
True or false: The majority of participants completed the program with a healthy BMI.
Which of the following social determinants of health were incorporated in this intervention (check all that apply)?
|Employment and healthcare access|
|Lack of transportation|
Which of the following findings was reported by the authors?
|Children with healthy weight reported statistically significant differences in body mass index (BMI) measurements pre- and post-intervention.|
|Children with obesity reported statistically significant mean differences in total cholesterol pre- and post-intervention.|
|All children reported a statistically significant difference in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol pre- and post-intervention.|
|Statistically significant improvements in glucose were reported by children in the obese group.|
Which of the following may be a research question for this study?
|Compared to children who participate in low intensity dance and lifestyle education programs, are children who do not receive this programming at increased risk of type 2 diabetes?|
|Compared to children who participate in high intensity mambo, cha-cha, hip hop and swing dance classes, are children who do not receive this intervention at increased cardiovascular disease risk?|
|Compared to children who participate in cooking classes, are children who do not receive this service at increased risk of obesity?|
|Compared to children who participate in high intensity dance and lifestyle education programs, are children who do not receive this programming at decreased risk of obesity?|
If you were the Director of a diabetes prevention program and you read this article because you were interested in exercise and weight loss interventions for your school age population, where might you focus your efforts to have similar results?
|Healthy weight children|
|Overweight and obese children|
|Single parent households|
You are the Director of a youth development program. Your clinicians and support staff are concerned with rising obesity rates among your program participants. You are charged with looking at evidence-based practice to inform the development of a healthy weight program that incorporates physical activity and nutrition counseling. Choose one of the data points below and utilize it to convince your staff to adopt a physical activity and nutrition education intervention. You must paraphrase the data in your own words. Please respond in 5-7 sentences. Please summarize the intervention you propose (based on the article) in the first 2-3 sentences. Your last sentence should state your recommendation clearly.
There was a mean difference in body mass index (BMI) pre and post intervention for the >/= 95th percentile BMI group of -0.46 (p=0.01). (Table 1)
There was a mean difference in % body fat (BF) pre and post intervention for the 85th to <95th percentile BMI group of -2.0 (p=0.05). (Table 1)
There was a mean difference in total cholesterol (TC) pre and post intervention for the the >/= 95th percentile BMI group of -11.95 mg/dL (p=0.01). (Table 2)
For the question, “How often do you drink soda pop?”: improvement at the completion of intervention at 18 weeks was 26% and maintained improvement at 6 months was 43% (Table 3)
The researchers in this study set out to measure biometric indicators of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular health. Their research incorporated which of the following components to meet this goal?
|Tests for statistical significance on the relationship between participation in physical activity and fat free mass.|
|Qualitative data collection on parents’ perceptions of the physical activity and nutritional education activities|
|Investigation of the environment surrounding the program|
|A feasibility test with school educators and administrators|
One of the limitations of this program evaluation as cited by the researchers is that there was no control arm. Which of the following statements is true based on this limitation?
|Parents were not able to consent for their kids to participate in the intervention arm.|
|The researchers cannot prove causality if they do not have both a control and an intervention group.|
|The kids are unlikely to remember what they ate when they are asked questions about previous eating patterns.|
|The researchers may state without a doubt that their intervention was solely responsible for decreasing cardiovascular risk factors.|
All of the children who participated in this study had to submit consent from their parents. This is an example of which of the basic principles of medical ethics?
|Respect for persons or autonomy|
Extra Credit: You are the Practice Administrator for a Children’s Obesity Prevention Program in the Bronx. You are charged with conducting a needs assessment. Please match the following data points using the SWOT model.